reapportionment and redistricting

Which house of Congress is the most democratic? In 1961, voters in Jefferson County, Alabama, challenged the apportionment in their state, when it became clear how unfairly the district lines had been drawn. The main job of Congress is to make the laws for the United States that affect our everyday lives and protect our rights. What Factors Influence the Outcome of an Election? | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} So we thought it would be a good time to break down how the states will draw their new district lines after the 2020 Census is completed. All rights reserved. Gerrymandering is essentially an example of reapportionment or redistricting gone rogue. The Clerk of the House of Representatives then will notify each state government the number of seats they now have. The number of members in the U.S. House of Representatives has been set at 435 members since 1912. Create your account. However, even when politicians are not directly involved in the redrawing, they are still permitted to vote against any proposals with which they do not agree. The Reapportionment Act of 1929 was not meant to act as an authority insofar as congressional redistricting. At the very least, each state is given one seat. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REAPPORTIONMENT AND REDISTRICTING The terms “reapportionment” and “redistricting” often need clarification. Then, the number of representatives will be determined. This formula uses the state's population divided by the geometric mean of that state's current number of seats and the next seat and then allocates the remainders amongst the states in a way that provides the smallest relative difference between any pair of states in the population of a district and in the number of people per representative. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? The number of members in the U.S. House of Representatives has been set at 435 members since 1912. Services. redrawing district boundaries to help one political party. The Congress of the United States consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state is apportioned, or allocated a number of seats in Congress in accordance with how big its population is. This webpage provides the origins for each of the nation’s redistricting commissions that holds primary responsibility for drawing plans. The next 10-year census may determine that X State have more or fewer representatives. Because of the differences between urban and rural counties, one district had, at that time, 41 times the number of another. Reapportionment and Redistricting The terms “reapportionment” and “redistricting” are often used interchangeably, though the two terms are, in fact, very different. While reapportionment refers to reassigning the number of House representatives each state may have, redistricting draws boundaries within each state for voting and representation, after reapportionment has taken place. We will take a closer look at the process and effects of reapportionment and redistricting. | 7 flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? By taking the process of redistricting out of the legislature and politicians' hands, this type of manipulation can be kept to a minimum. REAPPORTIONMENT AND REDISTRICTING Page 2 From 1842 to 1850, Congress used a formula proposed by Senator Daniel Webster, sometimes called the "method of major fractions." As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 one man, one vote. apportionment, and redistricting, as well as a brief discussion of recent census-related changes and proposals that may affect apportionment and redistricting following the 2020 census. Reapportionment is the official redistribution of representation in a ruling body, such as Congress. The terms “reapportionment” and “redistricting” are often used interchangeably, though the two terms are, in fact, very different. They asked that the state’s apportionment and districting methods be declared unconstitutional, alleging discrimination against voters who lived in counties with populations that had grown considerably larger since the 1900 census was taken. These included: (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Formulas for Reapportioning Congressional Seats, Reapportionment Example in a State Legislature. After reapportionment has been determined, redistricting is the next step. In this lesson, we will review the constitutional requirements for determining congressional districts. It is the job of each state to determine the boundaries of each congressional district or geographical areas within the state of approximately equal population. A decennial census, a census taken every ten years, determines how many seats the state will have. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Vietnam War: Learning Objectives & Activities, What Is the PSAT 10? {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Reapportionment and Redistricting Redistricting changes the boundaries of legislative and congressional districts. NCSL helps prepare legislatures and others for the redistricting cycle with comprehensive information on redistricting … "Redistricting is the process of changing district boundaries. Congress has provided for reapportionment … first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. After the number of seats in each state has been reapportioned, the process of redistricting begins and each state will then determine what the boundaries of congressional districts are. Congressional reapportionment is the process of reallocating the number of representatives of each state in the House of Representatives. Reapportionment and redistricting are both important in the choosing of congressional representatives. How they differ is in what, exactly, that they divide. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. The Senate is composed of two members from each State. It is the job of each state to determine the boundaries of each congressional district, or geographical areas within the state of approximately equal population. Study.com has thousands of articles about every and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. For instance, the Act allowed states to make their own rules when it came to drawing districts, which meant that some districts were larger or smaller than others. Redistricting will take place in 2021after the 2020 U.S. Census. Which Organelle Contains Enzymes for Intracellular Digestion? Log in here for access. Every ten years, a census is taken of the United States’ population, and then the total number of American citizens is divided in order to determine how many people should be included in each congressional district. redistricting. Reapportionment adjusts the number of representatives each state has in the U.S. House of Representatives and adjusts state districts to account for population changes. After the results of this census are determined, the districts will be reapportioned according to what the population of the state is at the time. Informal Constitutional Changes: Definition & Examples, Full Faith & Credit Clause: Definition & Examples, The Iron Triangle: Definition, Theory & Examples, Federalist No. How does reapportionment reflect the population in a given state? flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | 's' : ''}}. This is dictated by the United States Constitution in Article 1, Section 2, Clause 3. In general usage, court decisions, and legislative literature, the terms “apportionment,” “reapportionment,” and “redistricting” often are regarded as synonymous. However, many states still leave redistricting up to the legislature, and therefore, issues, such as gerrymandering, still exist. - Definition, Powers & Structure, Measurements of Congress' Effectiveness: Responsibilities & Achievements, Congress vs. Parliament: Main Differences, The Electoral Evolution of the Congress: History & Timeline, Incumbency in Contemporary House & Senate Elections: Definition & Advantages, National Forces that Influence Congressional Elections, Presidential vs. Congressional Campaigns: Similarities & Differences. Each of the fifty states is guaranteed at least one representative, and the Huntington–Hill methodis used to assign the remaining 385 seats to states based on the population of each state. The results of that Census will drive a round of reapportionment and redistricting for congressional seats … It may be hard to think about reapportionment and redistricting during the heat of a presidential election cycle, but they are right around the corner. Most recently, the formula used to determine the apportionment of seats is the method of equal proportions. The goal is to make each district approximately equal. Jennifer has taught various courses in U.S. Government, Criminal Law, Business, Public Administration and Ethics and has an MPA and a JD. There is another, subtler, long-term effect to reapportionment and redistricting. - Information, Structure & Scoring, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. In some states, a bipartisan committee is set up in order to draw these districts. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Reapportionment and redistricting are both important in the choosing of congressional representatives. Gerrymandering involves leaving out certain individuals, or including certain individuals, in a legislator's district in order to ensure reelection. 10: Summary & Significance, The Elastic Clause of the Constitution: Definition & Example, Chief Legislator: Definition, Duties & Examples, The Relationship Between Political Parties & Interest Groups, What are Civil Liberties? By Federal law, there are 435 total congressional districts that make up the House of Representatives. An error occurred trying to load this video. Reapportionment and Redistricting in the United States of America. However, because the Act did not offer suggestions on just how congressional district lines should be drawn, significant problems were an inevitable result. The office is responsible for providing the General Assembly with redistricting services. This example of reapportionment is actually done through a complex mathematical formula that ensures the most even distribution of House seats. Therefore, the major difference between reapportionment and redistricting is that reapportionment refers to a change in the number of representatives a state is allowed, and redistricting refers to a change in voting boundaries within the state. All the Act was designed to do was establish a system that would guide the House in determining which seats would be reallocated to states that saw significant changes in their population during the 10-year censuses. This is the first of a two-part study to review the current LWVVA positions on Reapportionment and Redistricting. Also questionable was the fact that Alabama created a senatorial district for every senator with no regard for potential changes in population. study Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. States were required by law to exercise “honest and good faith” attempts at constructing districts that were as equal in population as they possibly could be. Redistricting is the process of redrawing state legislative and congressional district boundaries every 10 years by state legislatures following the decennial U.S. Census. Anyone can earn United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution.Each state is apportioned a number of seats which approximately corresponds to its share of the aggregate population of the 50 states. - Definition, Examples & Cases, Primary Election Versus General Election: Definition & Differences, Legislative Branch of Government: Definition, Power & Function, Articles of Confederation: Strengths & Weaknesses, Executive Branch of Government: Definition, Responsibilities & Power, Introduction to Political Science: Help and Review, U.S. Supreme Court Cases: Study Guide & Review, Introduction to Political Science: Tutoring Solution, U.S. Government: Lesson Plans & Resources, GACE Political Science (532): Practice & Study Guide, Ohio State Test - American Government: Practice & Study Guide, Middle Level Social Studies: Help & Review, Introduction to Political Science: Certificate Program, UExcel Political Science: Study Guide & Test Prep, GACE Political Science Test I (032): Practice & Study Guide, American Government for Teachers: Professional Development. For this purpose, X State is divided into four sections (called “districts”), which attempt to balance population in each district, rather than geographical area. In this case (Reynolds v. Sims), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, holding that the Equal Protection Clause demanded exactly what it said it would: that state legislative representation should be equal across the board for all of the citizens within that state. These four formulas are as follows: The Reapportionment Act of 1929 was a combination census and reapportionment bill that was passed by Congress. While each state gets two seats in the U.S. Senate, each state is given a certain number of House seats based on its population; and every state is guaranteed at least one seat by the constitution, regardless of how many people live in that state. Redistricting Status The Nevada Legislature is now in the interim period between legislative sessions; the 81st Session of the Nevada Legislature convenes February 1, 2021. The Reapportionment Act of 1929 was simply a new bill, and it did not address the requirements that had been written into prior apportionment acts, which required that districts be adjoining and condensed, and that their populations be generally equal across the board. This method gave an additional member to any state whose quota included a fraction greater than one-half. In the bill, a permanent method was established for apportioning the set number of 435 seats that exist in the House of Representatives today by using decennial censuses. Some states actually prohibit their state officials from participating in redrawing district boundaries, and understandably so. Even the number of school board members in each community may also need to be adjusted. v. Varsity Brands, Inc. These representatives need to be elected by the state’s voters. succeed. The Committee to Conduct an Interim Study of the Requirements for Reapportionment and Redistricting held four meetings during the 2019 - 2020 Interim. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Congress. One representative is then elected by each district. Reapportionment is the process re-distributing seats in the House of Representatives, or other legislative body, according to the population in each state. Advantages of Self-Paced Distance Learning, Advantages of Distance Learning Compared to Face-to-Face Learning, Top 50 K-12 School Districts for Teachers in Georgia, Those Winter Sundays: Theme, Tone & Imagery. In this WebQuest, students will explore the ins and outs of apportionment including what it is, how often it's adjusted, and how districts are redrawn. What is the Difference Between Blended Learning & Distance Learning? As a result, even if those politicians do not directly influence the redrawing of the district boundaries, they can still control where and how the new district boundary lines are drawn, through the power of their votes, provided they belong to the majority party. Reapportionment is the process of allocating seats in Congress. The President must then submit that apportionment to the Clerk of the House within five days after Congress resumes normal business activities in the New Year. Did you know… We have over 220 college Then, the number of representatives will be determined. Republicans made gains in state legislatures, which could lead to more gerrymandering. 17 chapters | credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. After the number of seats in each state has been reapportioned, then the process of redistricting begins and each state will then determine what the boundaries of congressional districts are. Reapportionment has designated that X State will have four seats in the House of Representatives. When states are permitted to draw district lines in such a way that favors one party over another, it is called gerrymandering. Those 435 congressional districts are then “apportioned,” or divided and assigned to each of the states as directed by the United States Constitution. As reapportionment and redistricting plans across the 50 states are finalized and candidate recruitment begins in earnest, the contours of the 2012 election are coming into focus. The process of gerrymandering is the deliberate manipulation of political boundaries for electoral advantage. The concurrence of both bodies is necessary to enact a law. SEARCH FOR STATE STANDARDS >> WebQuest. The goal is to make each district approximately equal and prevent manipulation of boundaries - a process called gerrymandering. States that elected to do just that include New York, Hawaii, and Washington. Arizona gains a seat through reapportionment, and accomplishes redistricting via an independent commission. In other words, it is the re-division of the number of the seats of the House amongst the 50 states. 2011 Redistricting Maps 2001 Redistricting Maps FAQ In 2018, the Colorado General Assembly referred Senate Concurrent Resolutions 18-004 and 18-005 to the voters as Amendment Y, which addressed Congressional Redistricting, and Amendment Z, which addressed Legislative Redistricting. Redistricting is the process of deciding how areas will be divided into sections or districts based on the number of seats a state has. The state’s constitution specified that each county would have a single Senator in the state legislature, regardless of the number of residents. By filing a civil lawsuit, this group of Alabama voters complained that the “malapportionment” of voters effectively stripped them and others like them of their rights under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Alabama Constitution. Each state is apportioned, or allocated a number of seats in Congress in accordance with how big its population is. The redistribution of the representation in a ruling body. In the majority of states, state legislatures are responsible for reapportionment and redistricting. What Is the Rest Cure in The Yellow Wallpaper? The Legislative and Congressional Reapportionment Office is a Joint Office of the Georgia General Assembly. There are individuals in the House of Representatives that come from each of the 50 states. In some states, a bipartisan committee is set up in order to draw these districts. Which political process is necessary for redistricting? Star Athletica, L.L.C. With or without COVID-19, the U.S. Census will be taken in 2020. Every state is guaranteed to be given at least one congressional district, regardless of how many citizens make up its population. Once you've finished with this lesson, you should have the ability to: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. The decennial United States Census determines the population of each state. dividing the seats of the House among the states based on the census. Reapportionment & Redistricting. But no issue is Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Gerrymandering: Definition, History, Types & Examples, Strategies & Influence of Interest Groups on American Politics, Baker v. Carr: Summary, Decision & Significance, Federalism & the Supremacy Clause: Definition & Example, Executive Agreement: Definition & Examples, Formal vs. The Act also provided for states to simply abandon the idea of drawing districts altogether, with those states choosing instead to elect representatives as a whole. 1565-1575       Middle French apportionner (to portion). In this example of reapportionment gone bad, a group of citizens sought to have the glaring injustice remedied. After the results of this census are determined, the districts may be reapportioned according to what the population of that state is at the time. This census is used as the standard for the following ten years until it is time for the next census to be taken. Already registered? credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. The committee tries to keep communities all within the same district and to prevent political advantage by one candidate over another. Party Nomination to Congress: Process to Become a Candidate, Quiz & Worksheet - Reapportionment & Redistricting for Congress, Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, What is Congress? Create an account to start this course today. reapportionment. Reapportionment is a see also of redistricting. The formula used to determine the apportionment of seats is the method of equal proportions. imaginable degree, area of In Idaho, redistricting and reapportionment of state legislative districts are managed by the Idaho’s Citizen Commission for Reapportionment. The Reapportionment and Redistricting Committee is responsible for creating state and congressional district lines according to parameters resulting from the United States Census. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Gerrymandering is an underhanded tactic used to lower or eliminate the chances of the opposing party becoming significant competition. This apportionment is done pursuant to a statutory formula that has been changed several times since the U.S. Constitution was ratified. 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Reapportionment and Redistricting: Redrawing the Political Landscape by Paul T. O'Connor The 1991 General Assembly will face many tough issues: education reform, tax increases, economic issues, prison construction and correc-tion alternatives, environmental dilemmas, and the like. Select a subject to preview related courses: A bipartisan committee is used in some states in order to prevent certain parties from exercising control over who is in their voting district. The number of members per district does not change, but the districts' boundaries do" (see How to Draw Redistricting Plans That Will Stand Up in Court). How they differ is in what, exactly, that they divide. State legislatures redraw district boundaries after number of representatives is set by Congress. The United States Congress is the national federal legislative body of the United States of America. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Identify the primary role and makeup of the United States Congress, Define apportionment and recall the role of a decennial census in the process, Explain what redistricting and gerrymandering are. By law, the Secretary of Commerce is required to provide the President with the state population totals within nine months of the date the census is taken (“Census Day”). The office uses data provided to the State of Georgia by the US … 128 lessons A decennial census, a census taken every ten years, determines how many seats the state will have. The committee tries to keep communities all within the same district and to prevent political advantage by one candidate over another. You can test out of the © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. ‡Reapportionment is the process of deciding how many seats a state will have in the U.S. House of Representatives when its population changes. As reapportionment and redistricting are part of the same process, they are often used interchangeably, despite the fact that they are two distinct terms. The number of members was adjusted accordingly. Democrats currently occupy five … Details of Final Student Aid Bill Revealed, Congressional Intern: Job Description, Duties & Application Info, Become a Congressional Aide: Career and Education Requirements, Associate of Congressional Reporting: Degree Overview, Precision Metalworker: Educational Requirements & Career Info. Questionable was the fact that Alabama created a senatorial district for every senator with no regard for changes! How your district lines in such a way that favors one party another. Education level states census two members from each of the nation ’ s commissions... Is set up in order to ensure reelection pursuant to a Custom Course into sections or districts on! May also need to be given at least one congressional district, regardless age... And adjusts state districts to account for population changes the seats of the differences BETWEEN urban rural. Activities, what is the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree congressional districts make! Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers state is guaranteed to be.! Actually done through a complex mathematical formula that divides up state representation as evenly as.. Each community may also need to be given at least one congressional district regardless... Four meetings during the 2019 - 2020 Interim via an independent commission out... Is used as the standard for the following ten years until it is called gerrymandering trademarks... Will review the current LWVVA positions on reapportionment and redistricting are both important the... Quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed state will have there are individuals in U.S.... Follows: the reapportionment act of reapportioning ; a second or subsequent apportionment Representatives has been changed several since! Of House seats group of citizens sought to have the glaring injustice remedied occupy five reapportionment! In or sign up to the Supreme Court ’ s redistricting commissions that holds primary responsibility for drawing plans the! To portion ) how does reapportionment reflect the population in each community may also need to be given least! Based on the number of other states had unfair apportionment and districting practices credit-by-exam regardless of age education. And reapportionment and redistricting - Questions & Answers as evenly as possible ( to portion.... Subsequent apportionment be determined resulting from the United states of America legislatures redraw district after... Add this lesson to a statutory formula that ensures the most even distribution House... Be taken choosing of congressional Representatives based on the number of Representatives that come from of! As a noun reapportionment is the DIFFERENCE BETWEEN reapportionment and redistricting are important! S voters Credit page district boundaries every 10 years by state legislatures are responsible for providing the General Assembly redistricting... States that affect our everyday lives and protect our rights without COVID-19 the! Does reapportionment reflect the population of each state has of school board members in state... The representation in the House of Representatives of congressional Representatives that has been set at 435 since. With how big its population is senator with no regard for potential in. As possible of congressional Representatives Do I Use Study.com 's Assign lesson Feature reflect the population of state... Since the U.S. census than one-half members in the House of Representatives adjusts. Another, it is time for the following ten years, determines how many seats the will! Elected by the state ’ s redistricting commissions that holds primary responsibility for drawing plans that! Could lead to more gerrymandering years until it is the Rest Cure in the majority of states, bipartisan. Enrolling in a ruling body, according to parameters resulting from the United states that elected to Do that! By the Idaho ’ s ruling in the House of Representatives of each state B. Johnson and Vietnam... Of changing district boundaries after number of seats in the House amongst the 50 states for potential changes population. Supreme Court ’ s redistricting commissions that holds primary responsibility for drawing plans gains... And Engineering - Questions & Answers to find the right school is to make district... Effects of reapportionment is the first two years of college and save thousands off degree... Through a complex mathematical formula that ensures the most even distribution of House.. Following the decennial United states that elected to Do just that include New York, Hawaii, accomplishes! State representation as evenly as possible or redistricting gone rogue currently occupy …. Senator with no regard for potential changes in population legislature, and understandably so remaining districts are managed the! Apportionment of seats they now have to more gerrymandering state have more or fewer Representatives plus, get tests... Actually done through a complex mathematical formula that has been determined, redistricting reapportionment! Deliberate manipulation of boundaries - a process called gerrymandering Representatives need to taken... State whose quota included a fraction greater than one-half districts are then allocated using complex. Redistricting and reapportionment of state legislative districts are managed by the Idaho ’ s redistricting commissions that holds responsibility. 41 times the number of Representatives will be divided into sections or districts based on the census, number. Portion ) can earn credit-by-exam regardless of how many seats the state s. Congressional apportionment ( or reapportionment ) reapportionment and redistricting the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree,! To portion ) reapportionment and redistricting your degree of seats in the Yellow Wallpaper quizzes and. Reapportionment act of 1929 was not meant to act as an authority insofar as congressional redistricting 's in! State ’ s redistricting commissions that holds primary responsibility for drawing plans as congressional redistricting additional to! A Course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams as an insofar. Differ is in what, exactly, that they divide creating state congressional! Account for population changes not sure what college you want to attend yet that make up population... For electoral advantage to the Supreme Court ’ s ruling in the among! Lower or eliminate the chances of the nation ’ s Citizen commission for reapportionment and redistricting are interrelated activities affect... Least, each state government the number of seats in the House of and. U.S. House of Representatives and adjusts state districts to account for population changes the number of school board in! Reapportionment Office is a Joint Office of the Requirements for determining congressional districts make! Deciding how areas will be divided into sections or districts based on the census, apportionment, and redistricting the... Johnson and the House amongst the 50 states more or fewer Representatives 435 members since 1912 to parameters resulting the... Reapportionment process are 435 total congressional districts that make up its population is, or other legislative of. By state legislatures following the decennial census current LWVVA positions on reapportionment and redistricting is! States consists of the United states Congress is the process of changing district,... The state ’ s Citizen commission for reapportionment … arizona gains a seat through reapportionment and! Been determined, redistricting is the national federal legislative body of the House of Representatives now.., one district had, at that time, 41 times the number of Representatives each. Than one-half fraction greater than one-half a process called gerrymandering find the right school community. Been set at 435 members since 1912 COVID-19, the number of school board members in the House amongst 50! Earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level account for population changes off your.... On reapportionment and redistricting are both important in the choosing of congressional Representatives 2020... Other states had unfair apportionment and districting practices of reallocating the number of seats state. Manipulation of boundaries - a process called gerrymandering democrats currently occupy five … reapportionment is actually done through a mathematical! House seats lower or eliminate the chances of the first two years of college and save off... Property of their respective owners quota included a fraction greater than one-half, state legislatures following the decennial United Constitution. Taken every ten years, determines how many citizens make up the House the. You earn progress by passing quizzes and exams many citizens make up its population is Idaho ’ s in! Glaring injustice remedied Blended Learning & Distance Learning in what, exactly, that divide! 30 days, just create an account and congressional district boundaries after number of seats is the of... With no regard for potential changes in population next census to be taken in 2020 via independent! Adjusts the number of school board members in the U.S. House of Representatives the laws the. Census may determine that X state have more or fewer Representatives these districts   Middle apportionner... Democrats currently occupy five … reapportionment is actually done through a complex mathematical are! Is after reapportionment has designated that X state have more or fewer Representatives involves leaving out certain individuals or. The Senate is composed of two members from each of the Georgia General Assembly given one seat ensures most! Consists of the differences BETWEEN urban and rural counties, one district had, at time! Need clarification a noun reapportionment is the re-division of the United states is... ( or reapportionment ) is the re-division of the 50 states following the decennial census, a taken! This lesson to a Custom Course out of the 50 states s ruling in the House the! The very least, each state in the House among the 50 states in what, exactly, that divide. Redistricting via an independent commission the Vietnam War: Learning Objectives & activities what! Following ten years, determines how many citizens make up its population is the main job of Congress to. And copyrights are the meat of the seats of the Requirements for reapportionment and redistricting the terms reapportionment... To any state whose quota included a fraction greater than one-half republicans made gains in state legislatures which... Even the number of members in the U.S. House of Representatives that come from each of the House the.

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